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How Are The Forward Contracts Settled?

How Are The Forward Contracts Settled?

The two parties enter into a contract to settle the forward contract at a set date in the future at a set time for a predetermined price. There are two ways in which the parties can settle off the agreement.

Physical settlement of the commodity

The buyer pays the full amount of the purchase of the forward contract to the seller and the commodity then gets delivered to the buyer by the seller. This is called the physical settlement of the asset.

Cash settlement

When this happens then there is no actual commodity or asset physical delivery. The buyer, as well as the seller, just exchange the cash difference that gets generated. The cash difference is paid off which could be either from the buyer to the seller or form the seller to the buyer and the transaction is closed.

So the settlement between two parties that enter into a forward contract happens either as a physical settlement or a cash settlement.

The risk that is involved when you enter into a forward contract

There is risk involved when you enter into a forwards contract. This risk is not just associated with the movement of the price.

Liquidity risk

In theory, it can be easy to say that a buyer can easily find a seller who would agree to enter into a forwards contract for a set price. But this is not so easy when real transactions happen in the real world. The party would have to get in touch with an investment bank and let them know what their intentions are. The investment bank will look around the market for someone who holds just the opposite view to the buyer and then the contract is signed between the two parties. The investment bank acts as a middleman and to let the buyer meet the seller the investment bank charges a hefty fee.

Risk of default

Both the parties enter into a forwards contract at a set date. Butwhentheactual date of the settlement comes and one is in a heavy loss then there are chances that the loss-making party could default on the agreement.

Regulatory risk

The contract is entered by two parties and there is no regulatory body over them. This increases the risk of default because there is no law involved.


The forward contracts also a very rigid contract. If at some point midway before the forward contract is settled both the parties have a change of view, then the forward’s contract does not let them change the agreement. There is also no option to foreclose the agreement in advance. And this was why the futures contract came into existence.




The 3 Scenarios Of Buying A Forwards Contract

The 3 Scenarios Of Buying A Forwards Contract

When two parties enter into a forwards contract then irrespective of what the price of the commodity is the buyer is obliged to buy at a predetermined price and the seller is obliged to sell at the predetermined price.

So why do the parties enter into the contract at a particular price. The reason for this is that the buyer may feel that the price of the commodity would go up by the time he decides to purchase it and he thus locks in today’s price to save himself from paying extra at later date.

The seller, on the other hand, thinks that the price of the commodity would go down and thus locks in today’s price to save himself from the fall in price. The party that agrees to buy the asset at some future point is the buyer of the forward’s contract and the party who agrees to sell it at a future date is the seller of the contract.

Since both, the parties who are involved in the transaction have views that are opposing and thus this is why they enter into an agreement which is the forward’s contract.


There are three possible scenarios that can come up with entering into a forwards contract.

First scenario

The price of the commodity could go higher. In this case, the buyer benefits because he had locked in the price and thus he can buy the gold at a lower price. Thesellerhoweverhas a loss because had he not agreed to sell the commodity at the price he could have made more money when he sold it today. However, he is obliged to sell the commodity at the predetermined price.

Second scenario

The commodity prices go down. Here the buyer is at a loss because he has signed a contract to pay a higher price to the seller. So even if the commodity prices are down it does not matter. The buyer still has to pay a higher price to the seller. This means that the seller ends the transaction in a profit.

Third scenario

The price of the commodity stays the same. When this happens then none of the parties benefit from entering the forward contract. It is just like a normal transaction that happens on any particular day. The buyer pays the gold price and the seller gives the buyer the required quantity of gold.

Understand The Forwards Market

Understand The Forwards Market

A very important part of the derivative market is the futures market. Derivatives are those whose value is derived from the value of some other underlying asset class. Thisissomeanotherfinancial entity. The underlying security could be anything. It could be stocks, currency, commodity or bonds.

Financial derivatives have been them for a long time. The earlier usage of derivatives was in the farming industry. This was a method to price the crops which were ready to get harvested at a future time. This method was used to pay in advance for the farmers and this is what is known as the forward’s contract.

Forwards market

There are a lot of similarities between the forward and the futures market. You need to know about the forwards market to understand what the futures market is.

The forward contract is a simple derivate from. This is like a futures contract and it has the similar kind of a transactional structure like the futures contract. However today it is the futures contract that has become the trader’s priority. The forwards are still in use but these contracts are still used in banks and industries.

You, however, need to understand the structure of a forward contract.

Example of a forwards contract

In the earlier days, the forward market came into existence to protect the farmer’s interest from any adverse movement in the prices. In this market, the buyer, as well as the seller, enter into some sort of an agreement to exchange the goods for cash. The exchange happens at a set price on a set future date. The good price is then fixed by both the parties on a particular day that they enter into some agreement. The date, as well as the time when the goods will be delivered, is also fixed. This agreement does not involve any the third party. The forward contract is traded only over the counter where the institution’s trade based on negotiations which are on one to one basis.

Another example of forwarding contract

Take the example of a jeweler who designs and manufactures the jewelry. He buys the gold from an importer of gold who sells the gold at a wholesale price to the jeweler.

The two parties enter into a contract to buy say 10 kgs of gold in three months’ time. They also fix the price of gold at the current price of the market.

This is a straightforward way and an agreement that is prevalent in the business market today. And this agreement is known as the forward contract. Whatever be the price of gold on the set date the importer has to sell the gold to the manufacturer at the predetermined price. Both have to honor this agreement.


Useful Strategies For Marketing Import/Export Trade

Useful Strategies For Marketing Import/Export Trade

Whichever business you are a part of, concentrating on its advertising part is very important today. The success for your business and establishing of the brand name is highly dependent on how you market your goods and services to the potential buyers. The import and export trade is no exception in this context. When indulging in this business, it gets really essential for you to create a good overall portfolio so that investors find your entire project interesting and the buyers also gain confidence in the products offered by you.

Tactics for the advertising business

One of the first steps in the marketing area that can help you build a great brand image is actually one of the easiest ways- participating in different import/export groups functioning on the InternetYour presence on the social media is really important. Not necessary that you keep posting daily or reach out to individuals every hour. What is important is that you have one or the other kind of online presence from time to time so that you stay in the notice. Remember that social media sites are a very favorable platform to identify your target audience and connect with them quickly to understand their needs and thoughts process. Discuss your products and other ventures with experts and consider their advice for useful innovations in your business.

You will have to be smart here by selecting only the most active and popular social media networks and make your trade popular there to attract buyers. Find below some of the tips that can help you perform this task effectively.

  • Show the positive: You have to showcase a very positive attitude as you are the representative of the products you are offering. In case any negative aspect is to be shared, use words that still seem to be constructive and helpful.
  • Adapt expertise: No matter you are importing or exporting, try to gain expertise in your market and the kind of products being offered. This will gain your confidence and will make you self-dependent. This quality can further be used in marketing your products.
  • Perfect grammar: While advertising your goods, do not pass copies that are not proof-read. Make sure that the grammar used is perfect and correct words are used to describe the items.
  • Connect with the audience: It will be very helpful for you if you create ads or strategies that can help you connect with the buyers. It will bring a personal touch to your business and the buyers would be able to easily trust you too.

Ensure that there are sufficient funds for the marketing process as well. Invest in helpful ventures available online and have enough finances to cater all the marketing needs right in time.


Business- How To Be Successful

Business- How To Be Successful

There are many new ventures or start-ups that get formed daily but only a few of them survive. To start a new business is a risky affair.  At every turn, the entrepreneurs face an obstacle. You should not try to work out many things at the same time. That would be the biggest mistake one can make while starting a business. If you are planning to start a business and you are into trading, you will not be able to give your entire focus to the business which will end up in shutting down the business.  Still, you wish to trade, you can choose to trade in digital currencies using automated trading robots. All the information about it can be viewed here.

Everyone knows that there are many reasons why a business will fail, but what about the reasons to succeed. Below mentioned are few reasons which will help a business to succeed.

Reasons one should know

Direction- All the new ventures require a leader who has a vision. When the business hits the difficult times, the business head should have a clear idea about the mission and the way to achieve them. A great leader will have a long-term goal in mind and at the same time will efficiently deal with immediate requirements of the business.

Quicker delivery- Especially in today’s era, where the technology is developing at a faster rate, the start-ups are able to produce the products and deliver to customers quickly.  All the new businesses have to compete with other established companies. The main reason why a business succeeds is that they are able to reach the consumers first.

Stronghold in finance- If you want your startup to succeed, then you should be an expert in handling the budget.  You should be able to manage the finances and keep the new company out of all those debts which it won’t be able to repay.

Well-connected- It would help the startup a lot if you are well-connected with the experts and the prominent people in the industry.  The organization uses the social network to reach out to investors, clients, and mentors. It is very important who you know in the industry.

Dedication- The new business needs people who are willing to commit to hard work until they achieve the goal.  As a leader, if you are able to show this to your employees, then they too will be dedicated and work for the goal.


How To Gain Contacts To Your Business

How To Gain Contacts To Your Business

Business is a task, that needs constant monitoring and improvising, else you will be pushed to the bottom. With such a connected world, it will be all the more challenging and tough, if you aren’t in with the trend and reach out to more people.

Is networking not the need of the hour? yes, certainly it is!! networking with people is the biggest growing path, that has everything circled around, revolving around. Networking with more people gives you an opportunity to exhibit your talent and skill and your business too. but, does networking happen overnight? Can I open a Facebook page and expect customers by day 5 or even day 15?

Nothing happens in short notice, so you need to stay grounded in your plans and work hard towards it. gaining contacts is the biggest challenge in the business, without which nothing will ever go forward. To approach a higher number of people, you need to network, gain contacts of interested people, check if your product or service suits their needs and so on. The base of business is the contacts that one has!!

So, wondering how to get contacts, nobody is going to give it to you directly. So, there must be a way to gather the contacts, read on to know how!

Social media:

LinkedIn and Facebook are now in the positive use, you can use them to cater to more people. Let your first circle of friends know what you are into and pass the info. Your social media account can hold all the details about your business and how you are progressing, stay connected mostly, be available when someone needs you, if not possible do acknowledge.

Be supportive to all your friends, let them know that you are watching them and their progress, this will let them do the same for you. like and comment on their status, posts and be proactive.

Have a schedule for check-ins to this social media:

Always being online and checking on messages will actually leave you no time to do the real work. so, keep a timetable, time to log in and check, say every 5 hours, or twice in a day, when your set of people activity is the highest so that anything you post is seen by a maximum number of people.

Stay with the trend:

Like knowing the crypto club, which this article will help you in understanding. Know how you can accumulate the coins or pay your clients the same and enter a new level of business that puts you on the light.


Pointers For Nurturing a Successful Business

Pointers For Nurturing a Successful Business


To prevail in business these days, you should be adaptable and have great arranging and hierarchical aptitudes. Numerous individuals begin a business believing that they will switch on their PCs or open their entryways and begin profiting, just to find that profiting in a business is substantially more troublesome than they imagined. You can keep away from this in your enterprise wanders by taking as much time as is needed and arranging out all the vital advances you have to make progress.


  1. Be Organized

To be effective in an organization you should be well structured. Association will enable you to finish errands and remain in control to be finished. A decent method to do this is to make a plan for every day. This will guarantee that you’re not overlooking anything and you are finishing every one of the undertakings that are fundamental to the benefit of your organization.


  1. Maintain Detailed Records

Every effective business keeps nitty-gritty information. By maintaining point by point details, you will be aware of where the organization stands monetarily as with the all possible difficulties one would be confronting.


  1. Break down Your Competition

Rivalry results in the best outcomes. To be fruitful, you cannot be reluctant to contemplate and gain from your rivals. All things considered, they might accomplish something good that you can actualize in your organization to profit.


  1. Creativity

Continuously be searching for approaches to enhance your organization and to influence it to emerge from the opposition. Perceive that you do not know anything and be available to fresh thoughts and fresh ways to deal with your operations.


  1. Remain Focused

Because you start a business need not mean you are going to promptly begin profiting. It requires investment to tell individuals your identity, so remain concentrated on accomplishing your transient objectives.


  1. Plan to Make Sacrifices

The way to begin an enterprise is diligent work, yet after opening your entryways, your responsibility has quite recently started. By and large, you need to invest more effort than you would in the event that you were working for another person, which may mean investing less energy with loved ones to be fruitful.


  1. Give Great Service

There are numerous fruitful organizations that overlook that giving awesome client benefit is vital. In case you give better support for the clients, they will be more inclined to approach you whenever they require anything as opposed to heading off to your opposition.


What Makes Bitcoin Different?

What Makes Bitcoin Different?

Last few months were a roller coaster ride for bitcoin and other Cryptocurrencies as well. Sometimes the prices climbed high and sometimes it was heart dropping low. It was really very hard to control the emotions. All the coins were running through the same circle, so how to distinguish one coin from another?   And most important of all how an investor will distinguish to invest in it?

In this article, we are going to discuss how Bitcoin differs from all other coins when enough coining has been done of it.

Real innovation

All other altcoins had claimed that it is the improved version of Bitcoin and will rectify all the flaws that bitcoin has. In fact, all the altcoin thinks that they have innovated in some way or the other. But the real innovation had already happened with Bitcoin.

Bitcoin was the first currency to introduce decentralized digital scarcity and all other innovations that have happened with the introduction of all other altcoins are very tiny compared to the innovation done by Bitcoin. We should not forget the fact alternatives for Bitcoin has been proposed since 2011 and still, none of the altcoins have displaced it in terms of price, security, and usage.

Altcoins and ICOs have offered many different features but none of them got adopted or used as much as Bitcoin.  What makes Bitcoin so special? We can answer this question in two subheadings; the network effect and decentralization.

The network effect

It has the largest network and gains from the network effect. As more and more people use this network the network grows thereby more and more people lock-in. As the network grows we can see the subtle unseen benefit of it. The benefits may not be visible from the surface but actually has second and third order benefits to the people confirming to the norms.

It has the largest network that means it grows in utility as well. The ecosystem of Bitcoin makes it easier to get it and keep than most of the Altcoins.


It is the innovator of decentralization; by decentralization, it means Bitcoin does not have a single point of failure or chocking. Bitcoin does not have any central authority to control it and diminish the utility of your coin.


Bitcoin is different because it is immutable, decentralized and unseizable. All these properties add on to the great store of value and no other atcoins offers these utilities.

Reasons Why Hiring A Financial Planner Can Turn Out To Be Beneficial

Reasons Why Hiring A Financial Planner Can Turn Out To Be Beneficial

When you are a new investor looking for support help comes in various forms. If you simply need automation which can save time, there are plenty of bots for financial advice and planning as well as those that are designed for trading, like the Crypto CFD Trader. Talking about getting help in handling finances a financial planner is someone whose services can be of great value.

Close to your retirement age, a financial planner’s services are indispensable

Close to their retirement age is when most people choose the services of a financial planner. With little time left and not too much capital to spare you would need the best of retirement investments that can help you earn more during your retirement period as well as save more on taxes. The financial planner would help you understand how well prepared you are for the retirement phase and also help you with the process of applying for your social security benefits. The planner would thus help you come up with a plan that is beneficial for you and your family on the whole.

For the self-employed folks, a financial planner is of great help

Self-employed people might have to work on their investments in a different way. There are even financial planners who specialize in handling cases of self-employed people. For the self-employed, hiring a financial planner would help save more money and handle the expenses in a more effective manner.

When your income is huge and you are struggling with setting your financial goals

People whose financial net worth is always on the high side during most occasions also have a lot of financial problems to tackle. The large sum of money that is always present in the account would have to be invested in the right places. When your income is high you might have a larger fund at hand every month. But with the increased size of funds available comes an increase in the responsibility. A financial planner would help you figure out tax saving ways to save your money while also increasing the profits you make. Tax planning is, in fact, one of the most important tasks of a financial planner who works with individuals whose regular income is on the high side. In fact, if you belong to this category, you should be clear about the planning needs you have and the type of debts and loans you would have to fulfill.

Can you predict market performance?

Can you predict market performance?

Trading works based on your ability to understand the current market movements and attempts to predict the performance of the market in the near future. When people buy assets they predict the possible changes in the price of the asset and so they spend money on the asset hoping that an increase in price would then bring profits to the investors. Trading bots like Crypto CFD Traders work on the basis of being able to predict market movements with the help of technical analysis methods built into them.

All-time highs and lows

Ask any experienced trader and you would hear about how the markets work in cycles. This holds good irrespective of the market you choose and the asset class you stick with. Mean reversion is the concept that tells that when a stock hits an all-time high or an all-time low the reversal of the direction is very much likely. No matter how an asset performs the market cycles work in a way that brings them to an average that is considered to be a rough measure of the value of the asset.

Don’t always try to beat the market

There are indeed some interesting ways to work against the market and even beat the current trends and make profits. But then this might not be a good idea to incorporate as a long-term practice. At any given instance a general assumption is that markets move in the same direction as long as an external force or a frictional element tries to work against this progress. Momentum in the market is one crucial factor that most of the experienced investors consider when they have to make decisions about investments. Overreaction of the stock market is also very likely. But to predict the movements roughly, observe the recent trend and you would surely be able to make a rough prediction about the performance of the asset, the market.

Value investing is a rewarding approach

When you are able to identify those stocks or any other assets that might be priced lower than their intrinsic value you would be able to make just a small investment and take a huge profit when the market really starts depicting the true value of the corresponding asset. Such decisions are taken by value investors also have a role to play in the way in which a market moves. Undervalued and overvalued stocks are cases where the market performance is a bit tricky to fully comprehend.